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Information about Luxembourg


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Information about Luxembourg

Facts about Luxembourg

The (national) flag
Official name Grand Duche de Luxembourg in het Frans en Grothertogdom Luxemburg in het the Netherlandss. De verkorte vorm is Luxemburg (Luxembourg in het Frans)
Surface 2.586 km², of which 250 km² water (slightly larger than the province Groningen)
Inhabitants 582.000 (2016)
Population density 225 people per km²
Capital Luxembourg
Currency The euro since 2002. 1 € is about $1.17 (2017)
Road network 5,227 km (includes 147 km of expressways)
Fuel prices For actual fuel prices in all European countries see Autotraveler.ru.
Code licence plate L
Telephone countrycode 352
Internet countrycode .lu
Time difference GMT+1; the same time as in the Netherlands

Geographic data

Luxembourg is a small country located in the Low Countries, part of North-West Europe It borders Belgium (148 kilometres) to the west and north, France (73 km) to the south, and Germany (138 km) to the east. Luxembourg is landlocked, separated from the North Sea by Belgium.
The topography of the country is divided very clearly between the hilly Oesling of the northern third of the Grand Duchy and the flat Gutland, which occupies the southern two-thirds. The country's longest river is the Sauer, which is a tributary of the Moselle, the basin of which includes almost all of Luxembourg's area. Other major rivers include the Alzette in the south and the Wiltz in the north.
The capital, and by far the largest city, is Luxembourg City, which is located in the Gutland, as are most of the country's main population centres, including Esch-sur-Alzette, Dudelange, and Differdange. Besides Luxembourg City, the other main towns are primarily located in the southern Red Lands region, which lines the border between Luxembourg and France to the south.

PopulationNaar boven

The people of Luxembourg are called Luxembourgers. The native population has a Celtic base with a French and Germanic blend. The immigrant population increased in the twentieth century due to the arrival of immigrants from Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, and Portugal, with the majority coming from this last country. In the 2001 census, there were 58,657 inhabitants with Portuguese nationality. Since the beginning of the Yugoslav wars, Luxembourg has seen many immigrants from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, and Serbia. Annually, over 10,000 new immigrants arrive in Luxembourg, mostly from EU states, as well and Eastern Europe. As of 2000, there were 162,000 immigrants in Luxembourg, accounting for 37% of the total population. There were an estimated 5,000 undocumented immigrants, including asylum seekers, in Luxembourg as of 1999.

LanguagesNaar boven

Three languages are recognised as official in Luxembourg: French, German, and Luxembourgish, a Franconian language of the Moselle region very similar to the local German dialect spoken in the neighbouring part of Germany, except that it includes more borrowings from French. So in principle Luxembourgish is a High German dialect with the status of a national language. Apart from being one of the three official languages, Luxembourgish is also considered the national language of the Grand Duchy; it is the mother tongue or 'language of the heart' for nearly all Luxembourgers.
Each of the three languages is used as the primary language in certain spheres. Luxembourgish is the language that Luxembourgers generally speak to each other, but it is not often written down. Most official (written) business is carried out in French. German is usually the first language taught in school and is the language of much of the media and of the church. In fact, around 85% of all articles published in Luxembourg are in the German language, 12% are in French and only 3% in Luxembourgish.
In addition to the three official languages, English is taught in the compulsory schooling and much of the population of Luxembourg can speak English, at any rate in Luxembourg City. Portuguese and Italian, the languages of the two largest immigrant communities, are also spoken by large parts of the population, but by relatively few from outside their respective communities. More information on Wikipedia

HistoryNaar boven

The history of Luxembourg is inherently entwined with the histories of surrounding countries, peoples, and ruling dynasties. Over time, the territory of Luxembourg has been eroded, whilst its ownership has changed repeatedly, and its political independence has grown gradually.
We have decided not to write a detailed history anymore, since we would have to cite other sources that are often on the internet already. Instead a few links with more information about the history of Luxembourg:

Wikipedia, History of Luxembourg from Wikipedia
Britannica, History of Luxembourg
EuroDocs, History of Luxembourg: Primary Documents

ClimateNaar boven

Luxembourg is part of the West European Continental climatic region, and enjoys a temperate climate without extremes. Winters are mild, summers fairly cool, and rainfall is high.
Seasonal weather is somewhat different between the northern and southern regions. In the north there is considerable influence from the Atlantic systems, in which the passage of frequent pressure depressions gives rise to unstable weather conditions. This results in overcast skies and considerable drizzle in the winter.
Rainfall reaches 1.2 m (49 inches) a year in some areas. In the summer, excessive heat is rare and temperatures drop noticeably at night. Low temperatures and humidity make for what those living in this part of the country call, optimistically, an 'invigorating climate'.
In the south, although the rainfall is not significantly low, at around 80 cm (32 inches), and the winters no milder, the principal difference is in the higher summer temperatures, especially in the Moselle Valley. Crops, especially wine grapes, thrive here. With a mean annual temperature of 10 C (50 F), the sunniest months are May to August. In the spring, the countryside is a riot of wildflowers and blossoms.

Flora and faunaNaar boven

Luxembourg's flora is characterized by the country's location at the border between the Atlantic-European and Central-European climate zones. In the north, beech and oak trees are plentiful. The oak trees can grow up to 30-45 m (100-150 feet), with a diameter of 1.2-2.4 m (4-8 feet). They supply large quantities of excellent hardwood timber because of their strength.
Along the riverbanks, species like the Black Alder and willows can be found. Alder wood is pale yellow to reddish brown, fine-textured and durable even under water. It is also an important timber tree mainly because of its disease-resistant properties. Willow trees can reach a height of 20 m (65 feet), and are valued for ornamental purposes.
The narrow, deeply incised valleys of the north also provide a habitat for rare plants and animals, especially the European Otter, a protected species. In the industrial south, among the abandoned quarries and deserted open pit mines, nature has reclaimed her own, and there are flowers everywhere.Luxembourg's flora is characterized by the country's location at the border between the Atlantic-European and Central-European climate zones. In the north, beech and oak trees are plentiful. The oak trees can grow up to 30-45 m (100-150 feet), with a diameter of 1.2-2.4 m (4-8 feet). They supply large quantities of excellent hardwood timber because of their strength.
Along the riverbanks, species like the Black Alder and willows can be found. Alder wood is pale yellow to reddish brown, fine-textured and durable even under water. It is also an important timber tree mainly because of its disease-resistant properties. Willow trees can reach a height of 20 m (65 feet), and are valued for ornamental purposes.
The narrow, deeply incised valleys of the north also provide a habitat for rare plants and animals, especially the European Otter, a protected species. In the industrial south, among the abandoned quarries and deserted open pit mines, nature has reclaimed her own, and there are flowers everywhere.

The actual weather


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